睡前来一发 | 翻,黑道特种兵1662硕百科知识之法律与司法机构
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翻译硕士考研百科常识：法律与司法机构Justice and the law
There is no single legal system in the United Kingdom. A feature common to all systems of law in the United Kingdom is that there is no complete code. The sources of law include (1) statutes; (2) a large amount of “unwritten” or common law; (3) equity law; (4) European Community. Another common feature is the distinction made between criminal law and civil law.
Ⅰ.Criminal Courts in England and Wales英格兰和威尔士的刑事法庭
Magistrates’ Courts which try summary offences and “either way” offences. A magistrates’ court, which is open to the public and the media, usually consists of three unpaid “lay” magistrates-known as justices of the peace-who are advised on point of law and procedure by a legally qualified assistant. A Magistrates’ court sits without a jury.
1.Youth Court which try most cases involving people under 18.
The Crown Court tries the most serious offences and ‘either way” offences referred to it by magistrates. The Crown Court is presided over by High Court judges, full-time circuit Judges and part-time Recorders England and Wales are divided into six circuits for the purpose of hearing criminal case. Each circuit isdivided into areas containing one or more centers of High Court and Crown Court.
2. Criminal courts in Scotland
There are three criminal courts in Scotland.(1)the High Court of Justiciary;(2) the sheriff court;(3) the district court. Scotland has two types of criminal procedure, know as solemn procedure and summary procedure. In solemn procedure, a defendant is tried by a judge sits without a jury.
3. Criminal courts in Northern Ireland
Cases involving minor summary offences are heard by magistrates’ courts presided over by a full-time legally qualified resident magistrate. County courts are primarily civil law courts. The Crown Court deals with criminal trails on indictment.
Ⅱ.Civil Courts 民事法庭
Magistrates’ Courts have limited civil jurisdiction, The main courts of civil jurisdiction are County Courts, the High Court deals with the more complicated civil case. Its jurisdiction covers mainly civil and some criminal cases. It has three divisions: (1) the family Division; (2) the Chancery Division; (3) the Queen’s Bench Division.
Ⅲ. The Judiciary 司法机构
There is no ministry of justice in the United Kingdom. Central responsibility lies with the Lord Chancellor the Home Secretary and the Attorney General. In England and Wales, lay magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor who is advised by committees in each county. The Lord Chancellor recommends the High Court and circuit judges. The highest judicial appointments and made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister.